GeoKey - open infrastructure for community mapping and science
Keywords:Participatory Mapping, Citizen Science, GIS
AbstractThe development of the geospatial web (GeoWeb) over the past decade opened up opportunities for collaborative mapping and large scale data collection at unprecedented scales. Projects such as OpenStreetMap, which engage hundreds of thousands of volunteers in different aspects of mapping physical and human-made objects, to eBird, which records millions of bird observations from across the globe. While these collaborative mapping efforts are impressive in their scale and reach, there is another type of mapping which is localised, frequently carried out over a limited period of time, and aims at solving a specific issue that the people who are living in the locality are facing. These needs are addressed in participatory mapping, which nowadays includes citizen science elements in data collection and management. The paper describes the background and design of a novel infrastructure for participatory mapping and science – GeoKey. The paper provides a differentiation between collaborative and participatory mapping, describes the state of the art and several use cases of community mapping, and the architecture of GeoKey, focussing both on the approaches to data capture and subsequent potential to share the data in an open manner where possible. It also describes the design elements that support learning and creativity in these projects
Becker, M., Caminiti, S., Fiorella, D., Francis, L., Gravino, P., Haklay, M., Hotho, A., Loreto, V., Mueller, J., Ricchiuti, F., & Servedio, V.D (2013). Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing. PLoS ONE 8(12): e81638. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081638
Bonney, R., Shirk, J. L., Phillips, T. B., Wiggins, A., Ballard, H. L., Miller-Rushing, A. J., & Parrish, J. K. (2014). Next steps for citizen science.Science, 343(6178), 1436-1437.
Chambers, R. (2006). Participatory mapping and geographic information systems: whose map? Who is empowered and who disempowered? Who gains and who loses?. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 25.
Ellul, C., Haklay, M., Francis, L., & Rahemtulla, H. (2009). A mechanism to create community maps for non-technical users. In Advanced Geographic Information Systems & Web Services, 2009. GEOWS'09. International Conference on (pp. 129-134). IEEE.
Ellul, C., Francis, L., & Haklay, M. (2011a). A Flexible database-centric platform for citizen science data capture. In e-Science Workshops (eScienceW), 2011 IEEE Seventh International Conference on (pp. 39-44). IEEE.
Ellul, C., Francis, L., & Haklay, M. (2011b). Engaging with local communities: a review of three years of community mapping. Urban and regional data management: UDMS Annual.
Esri (2015) Community Mapping Program http://www.esri.com/landing-pages/community-maps
Goodchild, M. F. (2007). Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal, 69(4), 211-221.
Haklay, M., & Weber, P. (2008). Openstreetmap: User-generated street maps. Pervasive Computing, IEEE, 7(4), 12-18.
Haklay, M., Singleton, A., & Parker, C. (2008). Web mapping 2.0: The neogeography of the GeoWeb. Geography Compass, 2(6), 2011-2039.
INSPIRE (2011). INSPIRE Metadata Implementing Rules: Technical Guidelines based on EN ISO 19115 and EN ISO 19119 [online] Available from: http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Metadata/INSPIRE_MD_IR_and_ ISO_v1_2_20100616.pdf, [Accessed 23rd March 2011].
Lewis, J., Freeman, L. and Borreill S., Free, Prior and Informed Consent and Sustainable Forest Management in the Congo Basin, SECO available at http://www.rightsandresources.org/documents/files/doc_841.pdf
Maisonneuve, N., Stevens, M., Niessen, M. E., & Steels, L. (2009). NoiseTube: Measuring and mapping noise pollution with mobile phones. In Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering (pp. 215-228). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Perkins, C. (2007). Community mapping. The Cartographic Journal, 44(2), 127-137.
Poore, B., and Wolf, E., (2010), The Metadata Crisis – Can geographic information be made more usable? U.S. Geological Survey Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Usability of Geographic Information, London, March 23, 2010. Available from: http://www.virart.nottingham.ac.uk/GI%20Usability/Workshop%20papers% 20pdfs/ [Accessed March 1, 2011].
Rajabifard, A., Kalantari,M., and Binns,A., (2009), SDI and Metadata Entry and Updating Tools” in B. van Loenen, J.W.J. Besemer and J.A. Zevenbergen (Eds.) SDI convergence: Research, Emerging Trends and Critical Assessment, Netherlands Geodetic Commission, Delft.
Regalado, C., Haklay, M., & Francis, L. (2015) D4.6 Creative Learning in Extreme Citizen Science pilot activities, Citizen Cyberlab project, London.
Sieber, R. (2006). Public participation geographic information systems: A literature review and framework. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 96(3), 491-507.
Starbird, K. (2011, May). Digital volunteerism during disaster: Crowdsourcing information processing. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-4).
Stevens, M., Vitos, M., Lewis, J., & Haklay, M. (2013). Participatory monitoring of poaching in the Congo basin. GISRUK 2013, 21st GIS Research UK conference, April 2-5, 2013, Liverpool, England, UK.
Tudge, P., Sieber, R., Wiersma, Y., Corbett, J., Chung, S., Allen, P., & Robinson, P. J. (2012). Collaborating towards innovation: Lessons from the participatory GeoWeb GEOIDE network. The Added Value of Scientific Networking: Perspectives from the GEOIDE Network Members 1998–2012, 103-118.
van Wart, S., Tsai, K.J. & Parikh, T.S (2010). Local Ground: A Paper-Based Toolkit for Documenting Local Geo-spatial Knowledge. ACM Symposium on Computing for Development (DEV), December 17-18, 2010, London, UK
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).