Aligning Needs: Integrating Citizen Science Efforts into Schools Through Service Requirements.

Ginger Tsueng, Arun Kumar, Steven Max Nanis, Andrew I Su

Abstract


Citizen science is an increasingly valuable tool for both scientists and educators. For researchers, citizen science is a means of more quickly investigating questions which would otherwise be time-consuming and costly to study. For educators, citizen science offers a means to engage students in actual research and improve learning outcomes. Since most citizen science projects are usually designed with research goals in mind, many lack the necessary educator materials for successful integration in a formal science education (FSE) setting. In an ideal world, researchers and educators would build the necessary materials together; however, many researchers lack the time, resources, and networks to create these materials early on in the life of a citizen science project. For resource-poor projects, we propose an intermediate entry point for recruiting from the educational setting: community service or service learning requirements (CSSLRs). Many schools require students to participate in community service or service learning activities in order to graduate. When implemented well, CSSLRs provide students with growth and development opportunities outside the classroom while contributing to the community and other worthwhile causes. However,  CSSLRs take time, resources, and effort to implement well. Just as citizen science projects need to establish relationships to transition well into formal science education, schools need to cultivate relationships with community service organizations. Students and educators at schools with CSSLRs where implementation is still a work in progress may be left with a burdensome requirement and inadequate support. With the help of a volunteer fulfilling a CSSLR, we investigated the number of students impacted by CSSLRs set at different levels of government and explored the qualifications needed for citizen science projects to fulfill CSSLRs by examining the explicitly-stated justifications for having CSSLRs, surveying how CSSLRs are verified, and using these qualifications to demonstrate how an online citizen science project, Mark2Cure, could use this information to meet the needs of students fulfilling CSSLRs.

Keywords


Participation, Citizen Science

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, Susan M., "Mandatory Community Service: Citizenship Education or Involuntary Servitude?" (1999). Service Learning, General. Paper 107. htp://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/slceslgen/107

Bode, L. (2017). Feeling the pressure: Attitudes about volunteering and their effect on civic and political behaviors. Journal of Adolescence, 57, pp.23-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.03.004

Bonney, R., Cooper, C., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Phillips, T., Rosenberg, K. and Shirk, J. (2009). Citizen Science: A Developing Tool for Expanding Science Knowledge and Scientific Literacy. BioScience, 59(11), pp.977-984. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.9

Bonney, R., Phillips, T.B., Enck, J., Shirk, J., Trautmann, N. (2015). Citizen Science and Youth Education. Commissioned by the Committee on Successful Out-of-STEM Learning. URL: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/cs/groups/dbassesite/documents/webpage/dbasse_089993.pdf

Brossard, D., Lewenstein, B., Bonney, R. (2005) Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project. International Journal of Science Education. 27(9), pp. 1099-1121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500690500069483

Butler, D.M. and MacGregor, I.D. (2003). GLOBE: SCIENCE AND EDUCATION. Journal of Geoscience Education: January 2003, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 9-20.

https://doi.org/10.5408/1089-9995-51.1.9

Celio, C.I., Durlak, J., Dymnicki, A. (2011). A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students. Journal of Experiential Education. 34(2) 164-181

https://doi.org/10.1177/105382591103400205

Chicago Board of Education (2017). Minimum High School Graduation Requirements (17-0524-PO1). Chicago: Chicago Board of Education, p.4. Available at: http://policy.cps.edu/download.aspx?ID=87 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].

Code of Maryland Regulations. (2016). Chapter 13A.03.02. Graduation Requirements for Public High Schools in Maryland, Subtitle 03. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS, Title 13A. State Board of Education, Code of Maryland Regulations. [online] Available at: http://mdrules.elaws.us/comar/13a.03.02 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].

Cps.edu. (2018). Chicago Public Schools 20th Day Membership, 2016-2017 District Totals. [online] Available at: https://cps.edu/Performance/Documents/DataFiles/Demographics_20thDay_2017.xls [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].

Ed-data.org. (2018). EdData - County Summary - San Diego. California Department of Education. [online] Available at: https://www.ed-data.org/county/San-Diego [Accessed 22 Feb 2018].

Ecs.force.com. (2014). High School Graduation Requirement or Credit toward Graduation- Service-Learning/Community Service. [online] Available at: http://ecs.force.com/mbdata/mbquest3RTE?Rep=SL1301 [Accessed 31 Aug. 2017].

Eitzel, M.V. et al., (2017). Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 2(1), p.1. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.96

Eshach, H. (2007) Bridging In-school and Out-of-school Learning: Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Education. Journal of Science Education Technology 16: 171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-006-9027-1

Furco, A. (1994). A conceptual framework for the institutionalization of youth service programs in primary and secondary education. Journal of Adolescence, 17(4), pp.395-409.

Gray, S. A. , Nicosia, K. , Jordan, R. C. (2012). Lessons Learned from Citizen Science in the Classroom. A Response to "The Future of Citizen Science.". Democracy and Education, 20 (2), Article 14.

Available at: http://democracyeducationjournal.org/home/vol20/iss2/14

Haines, R. (n.d.). Citizen science: Real-world applications for science students. [online] Learnnc.org. Available at: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/7210 [Accessed 30 Aug. 2017].

Hart, D., Atkins, R., & Ford, D. (1998). Urban America as a context for the development of moral identity in adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 54(3), 513–530. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.801998080

He, Y. and Wiggins, A. (2017). Implementing an Environmental Citizen Science Project: Strategies and Concerns from Educators’ Perspectives. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 12(6), pp. 1459-1481.

Helms, S. (2013). Involuntary volunteering: The impact of mandated service in public schools. Economics of Education Review, 36, pp.295-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.06.003

Horrigan, J. (2016). Libraries 2016 | Pew Research Center. [online] Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/09/09/libraries-2016/ [Accessed 8 Oct. 2018].

Jones, S., Segar, T. and Gasiorski, A. (2008). “A Double-Edged Sword”: College Student Perceptions of Required High School Service-Learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, [online] pp.5-17. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ831379.pdf [Accessed 26 Sep. 2018].

Kim, J. and Morgül, K. (2017). Long-term consequences of youth volunteering: Voluntary versus involuntary service. Social Science Research, 67, pp.160-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.05.002

Kiwanis.org. (2017). Key Club International Year-end District Dues Report. [online] Available at: http://www.kiwanis.org/docs/default-source/training/service-leadership-programs/slp-club-reports/key-club/year-end-key-club-district-dues-report [Accessed 15 Feb. 2018].

Land-Zandstra, A., Devilee, J., Snik, F., Buurmeijer, F. and van den Broek, J. (2015). Citizen science on a smartphone: Participants’ motivations and learning. Public Understanding of Science, 25(1), pp.45-60. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963662515602406

Lei, J. and Zhou, J. (2012). Digital Divide: How Do Home Internet Access and Parental Support Affect Student Outcomes?. Education Sciences, 2(1), pp.45-53.

Loup, Diane, "Community Service: Mandatory or Voluntary?" (2000). School K-12. Paper 9. Available at: http://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/slcek12/9 [Accessed 28 Sep. 2018]

Marylandpublicschools.org. (2017). Maryland Service- Learning Fact Sheet 2016-2017. Maryland State Department of Education. [online] Available at: http://marylandpublicschools.org/programs/Documents/Service-Learning/SLfactsheet2013-2017.pdf [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].

Masters, K., Oh, E., Cox, J., Simmons, B., Lintott, C., Graham, G., Greenhill, A., Holmes, K. (2016). Science learning via participation in online citizen science. Journal of Science Communication. 15, 3, p. 1-33 34 Available at: https://jcom.sissa.it/archive/15/03/JCOM_1503_2016_A07

McLellan, J. A., & Youniss, J. (2003). Two systems of youth service: Determinants of voluntary and required youth community service. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32 (1), 47-58.

Mdp.state.md.us. (2016). Public School Enrollment Projection 2017-2026. Department of Planning, Maryland State Data Center. [online] Available at: http://www.mdp.state.md.us/msdc/School_Enrollment/SchoolEnrollmentProjection.shtml [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].

Metz, E. C., & Youniss, J. (2003). A demonstration that school-based required service does not deter

– but heightens – volunteerism. PS-Political Science and Politics, 36, 281-286.

Mueller, M. P. , Tippins, D. , Bryan, L. A. (2012). The Future of Citizen Science. Democracy and Education, 20 (1), Article 2.

Available at: http://democracyeducationjournal.org/home/vol20/iss1/2

Nolin, M., Chaney, B., Chapman, C. and Chandler, K. (1997). Student Participation in Community Service Activity. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. NCES 97-331. Available at: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs97/97331.pdf [Accessed 28 Sep. 2018]

Ontario Ministry of Education (2016). Ontario Schools Kindergarten to Grade 12 Policy and Program Requirements section 6.1.4 - The 40-Hour Community Involvement Requirement. Ontario: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, p.66. [online] Available at: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/policy/os/onschools_2016e.pdf [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].

Ontario Ministry of Education (2017). Education Facts, 2016-2017* (Preliminary). [online] Available at: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/educationFacts.html [Accessed 10 Oct. 2018].

Planty, M., & Regnier, M. (2003). Volunteer service by young people from high school through early

adulthood. NCES National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/2004365.pdf

Raddick, M.J., Bracey, G., Carney K., Gyuk, G., Borne, K., Wallin, J., Jacoby, S. (2009). Citizen Science: Status and Research Directions for the Coming Decade. ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey

Raskoff, S. and Sundeen, R. (1999). Community Service Programs in High Schools. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62(4), p.73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1192268

Shah H, Martinez L. 2016. Current approaches in implementing citizen science in the classroom. J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. 17(1):17-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v17i1.1032

Shirk, J. L., H. L. Ballard, C. C. Wilderman, T. Phillips, A. Wiggins, R. Jordan, E. McCallie, M.

Minarchek, B. V. Lewenstein, M. E. Krasny, and R. Bonney. 2012. Public participation in scientific

research: a framework for deliberate design. Ecology and Society 17(2): 29.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04705-170229

Silva, C., Monteiro, A.J., Manahl, C., Lostal, E., Schafer, T., Andrade, N., Brasileiro, F., Mota, P., Sanz, F.S., Carrodeguas, J., Brito, R. (2016) Cell Spotting: educational and motivational outcomes of cell biology citizen science project in the classroom. Journal of Science Communication, 15 (01), A02

Schmidt JA, Shumow L, Kackar HZ. Associations of participation in service activities with academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes of adolescents at varying risk levels. J Youth Adolesc. 2012 Jul;41(7):932-47. Doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9694-y. Epub 2011 Jul 10. PubMed PMID: 21744295.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9694-y

Shumer, R. (1994). Community-based learning: Humanizing education. Journal of Adolescence, 17 (4), 357-367

Somerset, S. and Hoare, D. (2018). Barriers to voluntary participation in sport for children: a systematic review. BMC Pediatrics, 18(1). DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2Fs12887-018-1014-1

Smith, A. (2015). U.S. Smartphone Use in 2015 | Pew Research Center. [online] Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/ [Accessed 8 Oct. 2018].

Spring, K., Grimm Jr, R., Dietz, N. (2008) Community Service and Service-Learning in America's Schools. Corporation for National and Community Service.

https://www.nationalservice.gov/pdf/08_1112_lsa_prevalence.pdf

Stukas, A., Snyder, M. and Clary, E. (1999). The Effects of “Mandatory Volunteerism” on Intentions to Volunteer. Psychological Science, 10(1), pp.59-64.

Trumbull, D. J., Bonney, R., Bascom, D. and Cabral, A. (2000), Thinking scientifically during participation in a citizen-science project. Sci. Ed., 84: 265–275. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(200003)84:2<265::AID-SCE7>3.0.CO;2-5

Tsueng, G., Nanis, S.M., Fouquier, J., Good, B.M., Su, A.I. (2016). Citizen Science for Mining the Biomedical Literature. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 1(2), p.14. http://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.56

Vangeepuram, N., Mayer, V., Fei, K., Hanlen-Rosado, E., Andrade, C., Wright, S. and Horowitz, C. (2018). Smartphone ownership and perspectives on health apps among a vulnerable population in East Harlem, New York. mHealth, 4, pp.31-31.

Vigdor, J., Ladd, H. and Martinez, E. (2014). SCALING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: HOME COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. Economic Inquiry, 52(3), pp.1103-1119.

West, S. & Pateman, R., (2016). Recruiting and Retaining Participants in Citizen Science: What Can Be Learned from the Volunteering Literature?. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 1(2), p.15. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.8

Zoellick, B., Nelson, S. J. and Schauffler, M. (2012), Participatory science and education: bringing both views into focus. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10: 310–313. https://doi.org/10.1890/110277


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.